Neil Logan

Integrated Living Systems Design LLC

PO Box 551754

Kapa’au, Hawaii

USA 96755



Prosopis Collections from Ecuador, Bolivia, and Hawaii




Loja - Herbarium Collections from the University of Loja









Oahu - Bishop Museum Herbarium










La Paz - Herbarium Collections at the UMSA


Luribay -


#104 Applies to all Luribay, Bolivia collections: Neil Logan, Samuel Apaza, Omar Callo and Jhonny Arellano ( or or 022137288)

S17 04.052’

W067 42.059’

~2450 m



“Taco” sounds like Taho as in “Lake Tahoe” “good variety with purple pods”

Erect Tree ~3-5m with straight trunk. My consultant was pruning off the side branches while he talked about it.

Bark is green brown.

No Flowers or fruit – I was told fruits are sweet and purple color.

Branches with purple pigment.

Leaves bi-jugate (having only one pair of pinnae per leaf) per node = 1 leaf.

Pinnae 2.5-9cm long

Stipule protruding from the distil end of the petiole at the junction (abaxial) of the pinnae at the base between thorns.

Pulvini present at the base of the petiole and the rachis of each pinna and at the base of each leaflet.

Nectaries (abaxial) present at the pinnae juncture and proximal to the pulvini of each pair of leaflets.

Thorns 4-13 mm long

14-23 pairs of leaflets per pinna 5-12 mm long, margins-entire, glaucus with veins apparent-abaxial-irregular pattern oblong-the apex rounded-veins costate

3-4mm between leaflets.



“with good pods” = “Taco Alto”

Woody Shrub 2-4m tall with multiple stems

Fruits are yellow/green – not ripe, borne on a woody peduncle. Curvey, thick, with a perimeter/boarder/margin line along the length of the pods. Constricted around the seeds but does not constrict the width only the thickness. Distinct reticulations present. Pointy appendage at the distil end of the pod. 7-16.5 cm long X 1.5-2 cm wide X 7-10 mm thick. Peduncle ~ 8.5 cm long X .5 cm dia. 5 pods/peduncle.

Growing on the upslope side of the acequia above point #104

Branches with purple/red pigment, 1 leaf per node, I pair of pinnae per leaf.

17-20 pairs of leaflets/pinna-leaflets .5-11 mm long

Thorns 5-11mm long two per node.

Stipules Not present at the base of the petiole but are present at the inner pinnae junction (abaxial)

Nectaries present inner pinnae and inner leaflet

Pulvini present at the proximal end of the petiole where it attaches to the node and at the base of the pinnae (proximal) and at the attachment of the leaflets to the rachis.

Leaflet oblong, margin entire, the apex rounded, glaucus, veins costate and apparent abaxial.

Covered in insects – ants, thrips, beetles????

18-25 seeds/pod? Pods with 2-3mm long apiculation (distil)

P. juliflora???

3-4mm between leaflets.

Surface = foveolate to fluted.



Growing below the acequia towards the plaza.

Large tree 6-9 or more meters tall with a straight trunk, reddish-brown bark, no spines and yellow sweet pods (tree covered in Tillandsia sp.)

Branches grey-green with 2-4 leaves/node borne on short shoots (Bracheblasts?) No spines!

Leaves with 2 pairs of pinnae.

Stipule(s) on the short shoots (brache?) at the juncture of petiole and node and at the distil end (abaxial)

Petioles pubescent (total) = leaves pubescent!

Nectaries present (abaxial) at both places.

Leaflets-pubscent, 22-11mm long oblong with margins entire, apex mucronulate, veins costate and apparent (abaxial)

Peduncles – not woody, 1-6 pods per, 9 cm long

Pods green/yellow – not ripe, flat, not as plump as (b)  surface with reticulations (not obvious) with a curved distil apiculation 2-3mm long, margin not pronounced like (b), somewhat constricting both width and thickness, usually, mostly straight but sometimes curling back on itself. The endocarp is obvious looking like septae, 10-19 seeds/pod. 10-15 cm long X 1-1.6 cm wide X .5 cm thick.



“Taco” (Red Pods from Miguel’s Mom’s garden) Cultivate!!!

Large tree 30-40ft tall with reddish/brown bark, multiple trunk(s) (some gold sap collected). 

Branches grey-green or deep new growth purpled (distil) with 1-5 leaves/node and 2 long spines/node.  

Spines: 0.6 cm – 5.0 cm long and grey even when young/small. 

Stipules present at the proximal and distil (adaxial) ends of the petiole. 

Petioles glaucus to sparsely pubescent.

Nectaries present inner pinnae (abaxial) and inner leaflet (abaxial).

2 pairs of pinnae/leaf.

Pulvini present at bases of petiole and pinna rachis.

6-29 leaflets/pinna (pairs of leaflets), 1-1.7 mm long margins-entire, glaucus to sparsely pubescent oblong, Apex mucronulante-obtuse or rounded.

Leaves born on short shoots (Bracheblasts?) in woody material.

Pods-purple, red, black-yellow borne on a flexible green peduncle.  Margin –pronounced, flat, constricted only in thickness around the seed, rarely at the width curvey, sometimes curling in a circle with a 5-7 m curving apicultion (distil)(like a scorpions stinger)/9.3-20 cm long X 2 – 1.2cm wide X 2 – 5 mm thick.

One of the best candidates for propagation (accept for the spines)

Ovate, venation (abaxial).


NL52209e Cultivate!!!

Directly above Omar’s upslope de acequia.

Large old tree with 3 thick trunks and no spines!!

Branches grey/woody, new growth = green.

1-6 leaves/node or 1-3 leaves per short shoot ( large bracheblasts).

Leaves 1-2 pairs of pinnae.

Petioles with stipules distil and proximal, mildly pubescent.

Pulvini present inner pinnae and inner leaflet.

Pinnae 9-10 cm + long wih 20-27 ours if leaflets.

Leaflets 6-15 mm long 3-5 mm in between, pubescent, ~2mm wide, margins entire, Apex rounded to acute, midrib vein costate (pronounced).

Pods- 5-6 cm long, curley, yellow with grey blush, 6-12 seeds per with excellent flavor – very soft and chewy when fresh-like natural bubble-gum with a slightly soapy after taste.


NL52209f possible candidate for ETOH.

Below the Acequia towards the Plaza large, multi- branched tree.

Branches green.

2 spines per node 4-6 mm or not at all (new growth).

Leaves 1-4/node some with a single pinna the rest with not more than 1 pair of pinnae.

Stipules at the proximal and distil ends of the petiole.

Pulvini in the same locations as the stipules and at the proximal leaflet.

Nectaries present in both locations.

16-21 pairs of leaflets per pinna 5-10 mm long ~1mm wide, 4-6 mm between each leaflet.  Margins entire, Apex rounded, oblong, occasional pubescence otherwise glaucus, the abaxial veination concave?

Pods borne on a thick , green peduncle, ~8cm long, X 2 mm diameter, 6 (on this specimen) pods, the distil end having no pods is brown and dehydrated.  Pods are purple, green, red, brown and yellow, constricted around the seeds in all dimensions, sometimes in the absence of seed and endocarp, the pod margin bridges the rest of the pod leaving an empty space, long curving apiculation (distil) 5-10 mm or absent, 7-10 cm long X 6-10 mm wide X 2-5 mm thick.


NL52209g “Taco Alto” Excellent candidate for ETOH USP!!

Shrubby – multi-stemmed tree to a tall 2-4 mm or larger, erect, straight trunk tree.  I have collected this tree in 2008 growing above Haijchilla up to 3800-4000meters.  This is probably the most common Taxo in the area surrounding La Paz.

Branches with reddish pigment.  2 spines per node, only one leaf/node with no more than one pair of pinnae/leaf.

Spines 3-12 mm long.

Stipules present at the base of the petiole and distil at Pinnae juncture. (abaxial)

Nectaries present in both places.

Pinna 5-6 cm long, 20-23 pairs of leaflets/inna.

Pulvini present in all places.

Leaflets 6-15 mm long X 2 mm wide, margins entire, apex rounded, glaucus with, abaxial veination costate.

Other collections the Pinna, Pulvini and Leaflets can be smaller.

Pods borne on a thick, green, nearly woody peduncle, 10+ mm long, the unused distil portion brown and desiccated pods, thick and large (plump/fat) with an obvious margin, mostly compressed in thickness, sometimes in the width too, deep purple coloration (reticulations) but mostly yellow (straw colored).  Easily 10+ - 20+ cm long X 10-12 mm wide X 4-8 mm thick with a long 0-10 mm long distil apiculation.  Sweet!


NL52309a Excellent for flour!!! Has purple pigments…

Luribay – on road heading out of town towards the little church on the hill.

Large, old tree with a straight trunk.  Thornless.

Branches with deep purple pigment.  No thorns! 1-3 leaves/node with 1-2 pairs of pinnae/leaf.

Petioles ~ 4 cm long (leaves up to 15 cm long)

Stipules at proximal and distil ends of the petiole.

Nectaries present in both spots.

Pulvini present in both spots.

Pinnae 5-10 cm long with 8-27 pairs of leaflets.

Leaflets 10-17 mm long X ~2-3 mm wide, margins –entire, sparsely pubescent, apex rounded, abaxial veination, not very pronounced.

Pods similar to 52209 e but far more purple blush.  After chewing the pods fresh the mash is bright purple.  These pods are much larger than the aforementioned!  One pod approaching 17 cm long X 1.5 cm wide x 1 cm thick!!  Otherwise they are curley and flat like above.



Bolivia: Choquisaca, Camargo



Camargo Entrance just past sign coming into town from the north… Erect tree, large pods, thorns and dust!



Camargo up by Jesus Hill above hostel Cruz Hausi – looks like P. juliflora?



#107 Cruz Huasi Finca with Don Alberto Rivera and Daniel Liendo

S 20 46.945’

W065 13.674’




highly productive tree with large, sweet, yellow pods (32, 27.5, 17.5 cm long X 2.5cm thick x 1.5X2 cm wide)



300 year tree in front of house



Tree that doesn’t produce as much but is really tasty with yellow pods / purple streaks



Best for Api – purple pods found out in the garden adjacent to the museum.



tree with long leaves near house.


#108 – This point was taken while driving within the vehicle and is clearly not accurate with regards to elevation and the rest is suspect…

S 21 02.156’

W065 13.271’




2 distinct trees side by side – possible hybrid with P. pallida. Large, erect trunk, approaching forma armata with 1&2 pairs of pinnae per leaf and yellow sweet fruit.



#109 “Las Carreras” and Monte Agudo are places with good Prosopi according to Don Alberto Rivera…

S 21 12.854

W065 12.616’




Bolivia, Tarija, Villamontes

#111 = Prosopis  collections just outside of town Villamontes north to santa cruz…past the train station and a little further west all around a bulldozed area near houses. Traveling further takes you to “Punta uno” site of the “Taco Festival”.

S 21 15.302’

W063 27.348’





Peru: Lima

Natural History Museum Herbarium Collections

NL42209a ¨Huarango¨from Ciengillas outside (east) of Lima at the Japanese Bonzai friend of Guirmo Pino – garden.


Slinder, erect tree with grey-green, shallow furrowed bark, ~8-10 ft tall. Branches have one pair of thorns, often with several bracheblasts (short shoots) at each node. Leaf rachis (emerges) grows out of the bracheblast (short shoot) and there are often several leaves per bracheblast.

Leaves bipinnate, having 2-3 pairs of pinnae per leaf (leaves bi or tri jugate). The main leaf rachis is 5 cm long, each pinna are ~3-5 cm long, 6-12 pairs of leaflets per pinna. Pinna 4-7mm long, distinctly separated from each other (not touching) with up to ~3-5mm of space between each other. Pulvini (us) present at the leaf divisions (and possibly at the base of the petiole where the leaf rachis attaches to the branch – within the brachblasts) Nectaries present at the leaf divisions. Pulvini and nectaries present along the leaf divisions at the attachments of the pinna(pulvini), and in between the leaflets along the rachis = nectaries (only they are rare and found more towards the distil end). Leaves are pubescent (all parts), Veination-prominent abaxial, unicostate. Leaflets are oblong, mucronulate. Costate margins entire, leaves villous (all parts). Stipule or bract present at the distil division of the leaf rachis and at the base.

Flower Rachis (Peduncle) as long as the leaves (equal length).



¨Algarroba¨ - Prosopis inermis? limensis? (P pallida forma pallida?) - found at over 2400 m. west side of town in front of home just east of the large Collegio building in Matucana, Peru. Neighbor said the name and pods not sweet. Pubescent! leaves, rachis, petiole, nectaries at leaf divisions and inner leaflet?


NL42409a and b

Found in the ¨endangered Plants¨ section of Parque Las Leyendas

a is likely P. pallida / P. limensis

b is likely P. juliflora? mis-labeled as P. pallida. - not pubescent. This specimen produces basal suckers.



P. pallida-limensis from several different trees in the legume section. Pubescent!



P. glandulosa? found in "legumes" section near other prosopis but has very long narrow pinnae and is not pubescent. nectaries everywhere.



P. pallida or P. limensis hybrid? Found near the lover's park in Mira Flores. The tree had recently had all of its branches pruned and only regrowth was available for collection.

Tall slender tree. Leaves 1,2,3 & 4 jugate. Pubescent foliage and thorns. Nectaries present towards the distal end of the Pinnae.


Peru: Chuncay


NL050509a  Prosopis pallida? P limensis? P juliflora? from Chuncay, PE ~1 hr north of Lima at the Repsol station garden. 16 km point on the hwy.

Tall tree with straight trunk, flowers and fruit.

No woody peduncles!

Pubescent leaves, flower rachis as long as leaves and nectaries at leaf divisions and inner leaflet.

Has bracheblasts

No thorns!


*Additionally, Prosopis limensis (most resembling what is found in Ica, Peru) was observed growing up to 2400-2500m along the road up to Huaraz, Peru along the Rio Fortaleza) and it is observed along the way that Bromiliaceae ground cover pioneers the sand dunes…



Peru: Cuzco


S13 18.960’

W072 06.857’




Prosopis laevigata var andicola? From the highway above Urubamba on the way to Maras.



Peru: Quilca


S 16 degrees 41.827 ft

W 072 deg 24.691ęft

93 m

Point from Plaza de Quilca - no GPS signal in the valley.



Prosopis sp. (laevigata? juliflora?) Collected circa la playa in the middle of the valley just south of Quilca, where the Rio Vitor reaches the ocean. It is the only “Algarrobo” known in the area, though there are believed to be more in the lomas. Small tree 8-10 ft. tall. No pods or flowers. It is not pubescent and has nectaries at the leaf division/junction and in between every leaflet along the pinna rachis. The locals call Acacia macrantha “huarango” yet some locals believed there may be Algarroba in las lomas 3-4 hrs walk to the south. Attempts to find Prosopis in the arroyos above the fish oil factory (la fabrica) turned up only Schinus molle and Ceasalpinea sp., “Molle” and “Tara” respectively. If Alexis Bachelot collected the original Kiawe here 250 years ago, there is no record of it now. With that said, Prosopis IS known in the Lomas 1-4 hrs drive to the north of Camana outside of Atiquipa and Chala. Local contacts for the previous locations are: Julian Cascamo (054)959117345 and Camelo Televeia (054)959925525



Peru: Ica



Prosopis limensis from Ica, PE - branches from a tree in the median of the road just north of the Oltursa bus station.